Group_Banner.jpg
MyPicture.jpg Monica Custer, Aimee Slider, Jodie Lewis, Sarah Bucchino, Jana Lybarger

Edited_struggling_student_.jpg
lost_child.jpg



















child_sleeping.jpgRepeating_a_grade.jpg

monicawebphoto.jpg
Skipping and Repeating Grades
There are many things to consider before making an academic decision on whether a student should skip or repeat a grade. Each child and situation is different, which makes it difficult to research and agree on whether skipping or repeating a grade is good for students. There are many opinions on whether it would be beneficial or detrimental to the child socially, emotionally and academically. This article outlines the pros and cons of skipping and repeating a grade.
Gifted children are more socially and emotionally advanced than their classmates. Educators feel when a child skips a grade that child is losing out on the interaction with children their own age. Yet, research has shown that an accelerated child will keep the friendships they have formed before the move and make friendships in their new class (Lynch, 2000.). Children in the new class will be more on the same maturity level than the class the child was accelerated from, which allows the environment to be more comfortable for the child. Elementary schools tend to pull gifted children out of certain classes to attend an “accelerated class.” In most cases, this accelerated class is not really accelerated; children are just learning different material.

The Montessori method has been proven to work well with children, and children tend to enjoy this type of learning style. The Montessori method allows children to learn at their own pace and work with others of different ages—this relates to accelerating a child. (Mathews, 2006) In a study, gifted children who skipped a grade often outperformed children who stayed in the same grade. Allowing a child to advance helps them with their friendships. Gifted children can relate more to other children when they are on the same level socially, emotionally, and intellectually. Keeping accelerated children in a classroom with classmates their own age could easily cause boredom, daydreaming, bad behavior, and poor study habits. This will eventually hurt the child and the once accelerated child will now be behind. School needs to be entertaining to children. When a child is getting bored the teacher should know something is wrong. If something is not done about a child who is bored with schoolwork, he will eventually not want to attend school either.

No one thinks twice about advancing a high school, freshman football player to varsity to play with the juniors and seniors (Davidson Institute, 2006). This example is much like skipping grades. If the football player can outperform all the players on the entire team, football will eventually become boring and the player could very well lose interest. Allowing the player to advance to varsity would not only help the team, but also he will be able to play to his potential and be able to push himself to get better. Therefore, when a child outperforms his classmates, that child needs to be put into a higher grade. Children need to be able to aim high and push themselves to do their best. Keeping a child in a class where the material is easy and boring to him or her, is not allowing the child to work to his or her potential. Parents also need to be very supportive in this transition. Gifted children will be used to getting mostly A’s until they skip a grade. Once they do, the amount of pressure will increase. Parents need to stay positive and allow their child to know that grades other than A’s are great also, as long as the child is doing his or her best. Parents, as well as teachers, need to look out for the signs of gifted children and make the move that is best and most beneficial for the child.

The decision to skip a grade is not always the right choice. There are several reasons that make people disagree with skipping a grade, such as social and emotional factors. One example is that grade skipping causes children to grow up faster, which causes a danger (Forschmiedt, J., 2004.). By advancing in grades the student will be in a different surrounding and with older students, which may cause social pressure. Another concern is emotional readiness. If the student is not ready they may become frustrated, insecure, and may possibly fail. It is claimed that many educators and administrators fear that a student who is skipping a grade will not "fit in" or will be "ruined" in someway (Davidson Institute, 2006). An additional concern is missed topics of information in a child's learning. Most subjects build upon what is previously taught. If a child skips a grade they will be missing parts of certain topics and may encounter unfamiliar materials from the grade that they skipped (Lynch S.J., 2000). This may cause a misunderstanding or inability to learn a certain topic. The student may get behind by not having all the information that the other students learned in the previous grade. Most reasons for not skipping a grade are based on personal thoughts and beliefs. They are also very different from student to student so it is hard to reach a decision on whether skipping a grade has a negative affects on every child. If there is a child struggling in school, deciding on whether they should repeat a grade can be a very difficult decision to make. Many teachers, researchers, and parents believe that having a child repeat a grade has so many negative affects that it can be harmful. This is true in certain situations, but it all depends on the child.

According to Colleen Stump, there are several areas, which must be considered before making the final decision about repeating a grade. If a child is struggling in areas such as math, reading, writing, science, and social studies, retention or repeating a grade, should be considered. Also, make sure that the parents and teachers have done all they can for the child. Realistically determine if the child is able to meet the required standards to move on to the next year. If the child is showing signs of difficulty in these areas, retention could be beneficial for him or her. One benefit is that the child will mature. Being around other classmates that might be at the same level as the student, will help them gain leadership and maturity. Repeating a grade also allows the child to catch up. The teacher will be reviewing a lot of the same information that has already been presented to the child. The repetition will help the student remember more information compared to the previous year. Finally, the child will be building stronger skills. The student will most likely become stronger academically, emotionally, and socially (Stump. C., n.d.). If a child is struggling in school and the parents or teachers do not believe that retention is the best decision, there are other alternatives. Reviewing the child's IEP, revising the goals, and focusing on a new outcomes may help the child. If the child does not have an IEP, the development of one will be very helpful. As a teacher, think about the different teaching strategies that were used on the child. Try to think of new strategies that might be able to reach out and help the child better. Also, one-on-one tutoring could help improve the student's social and academic skills. Lastly, if summer school or extended classes are available for the student, enrolling him or her will help him or her catch up for the next year (Stump. C., n.d.).

The results of holding a child back are unpredictable. Deciding on whether a child should repeat a grade or not is a difficult decision. Professor Shane Jimerson, PhD at the University of California in Santa Barbara said that a child repeating a grade may best be described as ‘educational malpractice’ (Williams, n.d.). There are many negative outcomes when a child repeats a grade. Repeating a grade has impacts on the whole child. It affects their achievement in academic subjects and their socio-emotional development. First, the academics gains associated with repeating a grade fade with two or three years. Second, a child who repeats a grade is often associated with increased behavior problems. These students have a harder time making new friends and adjusting to this new situation. Also, students who are retained are more likely to drop out of school. Another major impact repeating a grade has on a child is it can lead the child to believe he or she is incompetent and incapable. The child’s self-esteem takes a major hit and how he or she feels about their self will affect their schoolwork. The National Association of School Psychologists states that retention is "an effective and possible harmful intervention" (Williams, n.d.). Instead of having a child repeat a grade, it is better to see what is causing the child to be behind. Is it homework, the teaching style, or friends? Find out what is getting in the way for the student and try to correct it. For example, would one-on-one tutoring help? There is no sense in a child repeating a grade when no one knows what caused the problem. The student will continue to struggle. Figuring out the problem and seeking help will benefit the child more than repeating a grade. Repeating a grade can have major negative affects on the child.

Both skipping a grade and repeating a grade can have negative affects socially and academically. Studies have shown that a child who has repeated a grade is between five to eleven times more likely to drop out of high school. Students who repeat a grade will lose their gains in approximately two to three years (Williams, n.d.). In many cases skipping or repeating a grade is not a necessary action if the teacher brings in extra resources to help both gifted children and children who are struggling. Sometimes a change in the method of instruction will help the child. According to research done by the Child Trends Databank, “children living in a household with an income at or below the poverty level are more likely than those living in a household above the poverty level to have ever repeated a grade” (Child Trends, 2003). Children living in poverty are more likely to be held back because they are more likely to begin school without proper school readiness and be behind their peers. One strategy schools and teachers can do and currently do is to bring these students into school earlier. Programs such as Early Head Start and Head Start have been created to teach these students what they may not have learned at home and to prepare them for school. If a student is still not meeting the benchmarks many things need to be done before a decision to hold a student back is made. Teachers should provide extra support in the areas in which the child needs help. This extra support can be used for reviewing and re-teaching concepts the child may have missed. Children performing below grade level should also be tested for a learning or behavioral disability because that may be inhibiting their learning. Teachers can also change and use a variety of different instructional methods to appeal to children’s multiple intelligences (Stump, n.d). To assist children who are high achieving and performing above grade level teachers can bring in material from other grades for the children to use. Teachers can also team teach different subjects. For example, in math, divide all of the students into a high, on level, and low groups where each teacher teaches a different group. If team teaching cannot be done teachers can send high achieving students to a higher grade for that subject. Teachers can also modify lessons and extend them so that more children can understand the material and be challenged from it. The decision to hold a child back or promote them early is a decision that needs much consideration. Skipping or repeating a grade should be used as a last resort and after multiple strategies have been used due to the numerous negative effects it can have on the child.

Article edited by:
Kourtney Wood
Krystal Morral
Katie Kline
Jaymee Gilmore
Emma Cabrera
Elizabeth Collins


Sources:
Brown, I. Student retention: some factors to consider in making the decision. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
http://www.acposb.on.ca/retention.html

Child Trends Databank. (2003).
Repeating a Grade. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/indicators/99RepeatingGrade.cfm#definition

Davidson Gifted Institute For Talent Development. (2006).
Educators corner: the truth about social and emotional aspects of grade skipping. Retrieved on September 14, 2009 from http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10379.aspx


Forschmiedt , J. (2004).
The Acceleration Question: Should Gifted Children Skip Grades?. Retrieved from http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/gifted/forschmiedt_2.htm

Lynch S.J. (2000, April 20).
Should gifted children be grade advanced. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content/Should_Gifted_Students.html

Mathews, J., (June 13, 2006). Fast learners benefit from skipping grades, report concludes. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/12/AR2006061201009.html

Stump, C. (n.d).
Repeating a grade: the pros and cons. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.greatschools.net/school-learning/repeating-a-grade.gs?content=659&page=all

Williams, J. (n.d).
Should Struggling Students Repeat a Grade? Retrieved September 9, 2009 from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/Should Struggling Students/

Pros of Repeating a Grade
Sarah Bucchino

If there is a child struggling in school, deciding on whether they should repeat a grade can be a very difficult decision to make. Many teaches, researchers, and parents believe that having a child repeat a grade has so many negative affects that it can be harmful. This is true in certain situations, but it all depends on the child.
According to Colleen Stump, there are several areas which you must consider before making the final decision. If your child is struggling in areas such as math, reading, writing, science, and social studies retention should be considered. Also make sure that the parents and teachers have done all they can for the child. Realistically, is the child able to meet the required standards to move on to the next year. If the children are showing signs of difficulty in these areas, retention could be beneficial towards them. One benefit is that the child will mature. Being around other classmates that might be at the same level as the student will help them gain leadership and maturity. Repeating a grade also allows the child to catch up. The teacher will be reviewing alot of the same information the has already been presented to the child. The repetition will help the student remember more information compared to the previous year. Finally, the child wll be building stronger skills. The student will most likely become stronger academically, emotionally, and socially (Stump. C.,P.2).
If a child is struggling in school and the parents or teachers don't believe that retention is the best decision, there are other alternatives. Check the child's IEP, revise the goals, and focus on a new outcome. If the child doesn't have an IEP, the development of one will be very helpful. As a teacher, think about the different teaching strategies that were used on the child. Try to think of new strategies that might be able to reach out to them. Also one on one tutoring could help improve the student's social and academic skills. Lastly, if summer school or extended classes are available for the student, enrolling them will help them catch up for the next year (Stump. C.,P.2).

Aimee Slider
Gifted children are more socially and emotionally advanced than their classmates. Educators feel when a child skips a grade, that child is losing out on the interaction with children their own age. Yet, research has shown that an accelerated child will keep the friendships they have formed before the move and make friendships in their new class (lynch). Children in the new class will be more on the same maturity level than the class the child was accelerated from, which allows the environment to be more comfortable for the child. Elementary schools tend to pull gifted children out of certain classes to attend an “accelerated class.” In most cases, this accelerated class is not really accelerated; children are just learning different material. The Montessori Method has been proven to work well with children, and children tend to enjoy this type of learning style. The Montessori Method allows children to learn at their own pace and work with others of different ages—this relates to accelerating a child. (Mathews) In a study, gifted child who skipped a grade often outperformed children who stayed in the same grade. Allowing a child to advance helps them with their friendships. Gifted children can relate more to other children when they are on the same level socially, emotionally and intellectually. Keeping accelerated children in a classroom with classmates their own age could easily cause boredom, day dreaming, bad behavior and poor study habits. This will eventually hurt the child and the once accelerated child, will now be behind. School needs to be entertaining to children. When a child is getting bored, as a teacher, you should know something is wrong. If something is not done about this child who is bored with the school work, he will eventually not want to attend school either.
Why does no one think twice about advancing a high school, freshman football player to varsity to play with the juniors and seniors? (davidsongifted) This example is much like skipping grades. If the football player can outperform all the players on the entire team, football will eventually become boring and the player could very well lose interest. Allowing the player to advance to varsity would not only help the team, but he will be able to play to his potential and be able to push himself to get better. Therefore, when a child outperforms his classmates, that child needs to be put into a higher grade. Children need to be able to aim high and push themselves to do their well. Keeping a child in a class where the material is easy and boring to him, is not allowing the child to work to his potential.
Parents also need to be very supportive in this transition. Gifted children will be used to getting mostly A’s until they skip a grade. Once they do, the amount of pressure will increase. Parents need to stay positive and allow their child to know that grades other than A’s are great also, as long as the child is doing his or her best. Parents, as well as teachers, need to look out for the signs of gifted children, and make the move that is best and most beneficial for the children.


Teaching Strategies to Help High and Low Achieving Students



Cons of Repeating a Grade
By: Jodie Lewis


The results of holding a child back are unpredictable. Deciding on whether a child should repeat a grade or not is a difficult decision. Professor Shane Jimerson, PhD at the University of California in Santa Barbara said that a child repeating a grade may best be described as ‘educational malpractice’ (Williams, n.d., p. 1).
There are many negative outcomes when a child repeats a grade. Repeating a grade has impacts on the whole child. It affects their achievement in academic subjects and their socio-emotional development. First, the academics gains associated with repeating a grade fade with two or three years. Second, a child who repeats a grade is often associated with increased behavior problems. These students have a harder time making new friends and adjusting to this new situation. Also, students who are retained are more likely to drop out of school. Another major impact repeating a grade has on a child is it can lead the child to believe he or she is incompetent and incapable. The child’s self-esteem takes a major hit and how he or she feels about their self will affect their school work. The National Association of School Psychologists states that retention is ‘an effective and possible harmful intervention’ (Williams, n.d., p. 1).
Instead of having a child repeat a grade, it is better to see what is causing the child to be behind. Is it homework, the teaching style, or friends? Find out what is getting in the way for the student and try to correct it. For example, would one-on-one tutoring help? There is no sense in a child repeating a grade when no one knows what caused the problem. The student will continue to struggle. Figuring out the problem and seeking help will benefit the child more than repeating a grade. Repeating a grade can have major negative affects on the child.



Jodie Lewis' Search Log

A student may be considered for repeating a grade when he or she:
  • "Has significant struggles making process in reading, writing, or math"
  • "Fails to reach performance levels expected for promotion to the next grade"
  • "Appears to be 'immature' or 'young' for her age"
Today in many schools, tests are being used to determine if a chlid will have to repeat a grade or not. The problems with tests are that they don't show what a child actually knows and can do. When test scores are the deciding factor on if a student will go to the next grade, it puts students at a disadventage, expecially students with learning disabilities. There are alternatives to retention. "The National Association of School Psychologists favors 'promotion plus' interventions designed to address specific factors that place students at risk for school failure." Find out why the student is struggling and try to fix it. For example, if a child is stuggling in reading, one-on-one tutoring three times a week may help. It is better to find the problem and fix it than to have a student repeat a grade.
Source:
Stump, C. (n.d). Repeating a grade: the pros and cons. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.greatschools.net/school-learning/repeating-a-grade.gs?content=659&page=all

Since schools have such high standards now, students having to repeat a grade is increasing. The National Association of Scool Psychologists says retention is 'an ineffective and possible harmful intervention.' The problems with repeating a grade are:
  • Gains are only short term. Within 2-3 years the student will generally lose the gains they made. Also, these students are faced with new topics, but don't get any help regarding the problems that caused them to repeat a grade.
  • Losses are long term. Students who repeat a grade have a hardier time making friends. They also have more behavior problems. "Research reveals that they are 5-11 times more likely to drop out of school."
  • Retention is emotionally devastating for kids. Students repeating a grade can believe they are incompetent and incapable.
  • Retention is not used equitably. Hispanic and African American kids rates of retention are as high as 50%.
When it comes to deciding if a child should repeat a grade, the real question that should be asked is "What is getting in the way" according to Britton Schnurr. Find out what the student is having trouble with and seek help.
Source:
Williams, J. (n.d). Should Stuggling Students Repeat a Grade? Retrieved September 9, 2009 from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/Should Stuggling Students/

Students most often repeat grades because they do not have the appropriate academic or social skills to go to the next grade. There are arguments for and against students repeating grades. For instance, a study found that students who repeat a grade have "more negative attitudes toward school, more problem behaviors and less frequent attendance." "Others argue against promoting children just so they can continue on with their peers."
A study done by Child Trends Databank between 1993 and 1999 showed trends for children in grades one through three:
  • Non-Hispanic black children were much more likely than other children to repeat a grade.
  • Children whose parents have more than a high school degree are much less likely to repeat a grade.
  • Children living in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of child poverty are more likely to repeat a grade.
  • Children living in a household with an income at or below the poverty level are more likely to repeat a grade.
Source:
Child Trends Databank. (2003). Repeating a Grade. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/indicators/99RepeatingGrade.cfm#definition



Sarah Bucchino's Web Log
Child Trends Databank. (2003). Repeating a grade. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/indicators/99RepeatingGrade.cfm

This Website provides a lot of useful facts and information based on research about repeating a grade. It shows the importance of being knowledgeable about deciding whether a child should be held back and repeat a grade or move on to the next level. It also shows trends that researchers are starting to see, such as:
  • "Non-Hispanic black children in grades one through three are much more likely than other children to have repeated a grade of primary school. In 2003, 10 percent of non-Hispanic black children had repeated a grade, compared with 1 percent of Asian or Pacific Islander children, 4 percent of non-Hispanic white children, and 6 percent of Hispanic children of the same age."
  • "Children living in a household with an income at or below the poverty level are more likely than those living in a household above the poverty level to have ever repeated a grade."
  • "Children whose parents have more than a high school degree are much less likely than children whose parents have less education to repeat a grade. In 2003, 2 percent of children with a parent who had a bachelor's degree or more and 4 percent of children whose parents completed some college or a technical vocational degree had repeated a grade, compared with 8 percent of children whose parents received a high school degree or equivalent and 10 percent of children whose parents had a high school degree or less."

Brown, I. Student retention: some factors to consider in making the decision. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
http://www.acposb.on.ca/retention.html
This site lists out several factors parents and teachers should consider before having a student repeat a grade. Sometimes having a student repeat a grade could have more negative consequences then positive. Therefore, it is important for you to know what to consider when making this decision. There are many factors you need to consider before holding a student back. A few things include:


  • Knowledge of the English language: If a student is showing little or no knowledge of the English language you would want to observe the student and consider having them repeat a grade.
  • A student has already repeated a grade: If a student has already repeated a grade and still isn't showing improvement, it is possible that the student will need to be put in a special program or repeat a grade.
  • Emotional problems: If the student is exhibiting behavioral or emotional problems that prevent them from learning, it is important to find out why the student is acting out and have the student possibly repeat a grade level.

Educators Guild Newsletter. (2006). Educators corner: thetruth about socialnd emotional aspects of grade skipping. Retrieved on September 14, 2009.
http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10379.aspx
This article discusses the importance of acceleration (grade skipping) for gifted students. Just because a gifted child is skipping a grade doesn’t mean they will be socially damaged. It could actually help them mature. A few interesting points made in this article include:

  • Research on grade skipping has revealed that there is no harm socially or emotionally for a student who has skipped a grade.
  • Gifted children tend to be socially and emotionally more mature than the rest of their classmates. Skipping grades actually can provide the student a better maturity match with their classmates.
  • As a nation, most people don't question the acceleration of a musically or athletically talented student. Yet, we tend to hold back the students who are academically talented.


Monica Custer’s Search Log

This article presented some objective points about having students repeat or skip grades:
  • The decision to hold a student back or promote a student should be made by a team of parents, school staff and counselors to determine what is best for the child.
  • A child’s readiness for promotion is determined by many factors, including academic, emotional and social factors
  • When holding a child back sometimes it helps to have the child switch schools in order to eliminate the fear of being made fun of by peers who are advancing to the next grade.
Source: Nickerson, A. L., (June 27, 2007). Deciding to hold a child back a grade. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/285045/deciding_to_hold_a_child_back_a_grade.html?cat=4


The website provides a few articles reporting on the skipping grades and holding students back debate. The articles do provide statements from scholars and reports done by Universities making the article more credible. Some points and information presented in the article:

  • When schools first began students were taught in a one classroom setting or by private tutors. They were not locked into a grade system.
  • Proponents of allowing students to skip grades want the students to be able to go to the grade they are capable of doing the work for. They do believe that this decision should be made on a case to case basis.
  • Accelerated students often feel more comfortable around those with higher intellect and seek out older children when they are not allowed to move ahead.
  • An accelerated program for one child may not be accelerated for another child. Each child needs to be placed in a classroom where they are being challenged. – UCLA Professor Jeanie Oaks
Source: Mathews, J., (June 13, 2006). Fast learners benefit from skipping grades, report concludes. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/12/AR2006061201009.html

This website gives an overview of what the Iowa Acceleration Scale is. The website is run by the Institute for Research and Policy on Acceleration, a credible source. The site states that the Iowa Acceleration Scale:
  • Provides an objective look at the student
  • Analysis of major factors in making a decision to accelerate a child
  • Guidelines for determining the importance of the major factors
  • Documentation of students strength’s and concerns
  • Numerical range to guide the decision
  • Standard of comparison with students who have had successful experiences with acceleration.
Source: Institute for Research and Policy on Acceleration. (n.d.). Iowa acceleration scale. Retrieved from http://www.accelerationinstitute.org/Resources/IAS.aspx

Aimee Slider's Web Log

Accelerated children can either skip grades or be pulled out of classes to attend higher grade levels in a certain subject. Keeping a child in the same class could cause boredom, poor study habits, daydreaming, bad behavior and not wanting to attend school-- all the essentials for being a successful student in school. The majority of the grades of children who accelerate do not suffer academically. When a child who misses a grade comes to unfamiliar material tht should have been covered in the grade that was skipped, they should not be given any penalty. Friendships are a worry for parents, but children usually stay friends with their age group and while making another set of friends with the children in the same class as them. If a child's standardized tst are above level or they are complaining of being bored or even starts o misbehave, they could be good candidates for acceleration. When accelerated, there is a chance the child will not keep up, the parents need to be supported and let then know that is not failure. If a child is accelerated in only one subject, educators need to make sure they are always accelerated in that subject.
Lynch S.J. (2000, April 20). Should gifted children be grade advanced. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content/Should_Gifted_Students.html

Gifted children who skipped grades made better friendships. Missed milestones of youth proved to be insignificant. The risk of not accelerating a student who is above their grade level has much more risks than when advancing a child. Gifted children are able to adapt more quickly which allows them to close the gaps that were made from skipping grades. About 90% of children who skip grades have a positive outcome. Not advancing a student will often hurt them more. In a study, gifted students who were advanced outperformed gifted students who stayed in their current grade. Changing grades often helped the child form stronger friendships.
Boulianne C. M. (2008, June 21). Grade skipping misconceptions. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from
http://challenging-gifted-children.suite101.com/article.cfm/grade_skipping_misconceptions

When a young child is accelerated to a higher grade (ex. 10 years old in high school) the do not seek social trauma. In fact, that are often more comfortable with older students. Advanced children should not be put into a class in elementary school with other gifted children and call is accelerated, even when the educators know it is not. Children should learn at their own pace and not be held back by the other students in class who do not learn as quickly. This relates to the Montessori Method--which allows students of different ages to work together. Some educators are against grade skipping because low-level students are hurt by tracking systems that keep them in low-level classes.
Mathews J. (2006, June 13). Fast learners benefit from skipping grades, report concludes. Wasington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/12/AR2006061201009.html


Jana Lybarger's Web Log

This site explained legal and official aspects of grade skipping, how to decide whether to grade skip or not, and how to approach your attempt at grade skipping. some interesting and important points include:
  • Grade skipping is not illegal, but administrators usually don't know much about it.
  • The law does not require a high school diploma to enter college
  • When deciding to grade skip, talk to your child, and think of other educational options
  • When attempting to grade skip do your research, assess your reading and math abilities, and make a request
(n.d.). Facts and FAQ on Grade Skipping. Retrieved from http://www.extremeintellect.com/ei2009/gradeskipping/skippingagrade.html


The article found on this webpage gave a real life scenario. It also reviewed reseach studies and recommended guidelines to follow when trying to skip a grade.
  • Studies show that carefully selected students who skip grades do as well or better than their peers in all areas of achievement
  • researchers have not discovered any link between acceleration and social or emotional difficulties
  • To ensure a successful experience for a child skipping a grade:
    - skip only 1 grade at a time
    - evaluate for any skill gaps
    - teacher and parents must be supportive
    - should be done on a trial basis
Forschmiedt , J. (2004). The Acceleration Question: Should Gifted Children Skip Grades?. Retrieved from http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/gifted/forschmiedt_2.htm

This article tells the pros and cons of repeating a grade. It gives reasons and outcomes of retention, as well as factors to consider and alternatives to retention.
  • Reasons for retention:
    - significant struggles
    - failure to reach performance levels
    - immaturity
  • Outcomes of retention:
    - academic achievement poorer than peers
    - achievement gains fade within 2-3 yrs.
    - increased behavior problems
    - more likely to drop out of school
  • Factors to consider when deciding to retain:
    - What area(s) the child is striggling in the most
    - What's been done the past year to help?
    - What has worked and helped child to learn?
    - How will your child feel?
  • Alternatives to retention:
    - work with teacher to identify accomodations
    - one-on-one tutoring
    - summer school, externded day or extended year schooling
    - extracurricular activities
Stump, C. (n.d.). Repeating a grade: the pros and cons. Retrieved from http://www.greatschools.net/LD/school-learning/repeating-a-grade.gs?content=659