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Kourtney Wood, Krystal Morral, Katie Kline, Jaymee Gilmore, Emma Cabrera, Elizabeth Collins


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Dyslexia Paper:


Many children in the United States suffer from disabilities. Some of the most neglected issues with these children are learning disabilities. Dyslexia is often referred to as a learning disability, particularly a language disability, which affects reading and writing. Those who have this seem to see words differently than those who do not. According to studies, fifteen to twenty percent of the population seems to have one or more of the symptoms that indicate dyslexia. Dyslexic students show signs of slow reading comprehension, poor spelling, mixing up words, and inaccurate reading. Just like many disabilities, this will affect a person throughout their whole life. Fortunately, there are specially designed methods that can allow a person to comprehend language. Although dyslexia is something that will hold a student back until they get proper help, it is not a disability that will define who the student is and what he or she is capable of doing (The International Dyslexia Association 2008).

Unfortunately, many students who are labeled as having a learning disability are assumed to take certain roles. Hudson, High, and Otaiba mention a few misunderstandings about dyslexia that needs to be clarified. Many believe that those who write letters and words backwards are dyslexics. Although this statement is at times true, it is especially not true for many young children. When first learning how to write, children have not mastered the language and will frequently mix up letters. It is important to watch to see how these children progress, but not necessarily indicate that they have dyslexia. One more misinterpretation of dyslexia may lead people to think that someone who has this particular disability will never learn to read or write. This particular statement is completely wrong. Children who are diagnosed early can receive the correct teaching method and intervention in order to maintain language development. By doing so, the child will have the same chance to learn language as any other child. Although it is more difficult for adolescents or adults to become an accelerated reading, proper instructions can help them. In order to limit the misinterpretations, it is important to research the ins and outs of dyslexia (Hudson, High, and Otaiba 2007).

Children with dyslexia suffer problems that other children may never encounter. Directional confusion leads into a child being uncertain of which is left and right. For example, it is hard for a child to read a map accurately. A child should know his left and right by the age of five. Directional confusion affects other concepts also such as up and down, top and bottom, and compass directions. Directional confusion is the reasoning of reversing letters or number like b,d,p,q or 17 and 71. When the child has directional confusion it also leads to math problems because they cannot read the problem correctly and they could be confused by the different math symbols. Sequencing difficulties is another symptom of dyslexia. This affects their ability to read and spell correctly. To read a person must be able to sequence letters in a word to read correctly. An example would be the word felt and left, act and cat, and reserve and reverse. Having difficulty with little words is another symptom. An example of this would be mistaking a for and, the for a, from for for, there for then, and were for with. Late talking can also develop as a symptom. If a child talks immaturely and still makes unexpected grammatical errors in their speech when they are five years old it’s a an alert for dyslexia. Handwriting is a major symptom when it comes to dyslexia. The word dysgraphia is used when explaining this symptom. The writing is illegible, inconsistent, unfinished, irregular sized, and mixed up with lower and upper case. There are many symptoms when it comes to dyslexia and it affects a child majorly. When a child is showing many of these signs parents, teachers, and caregivers should seek help for the child (Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, 2006).
Severe dyslexia is caused by disorientation, which for dyslexic people means that they have an inaccurate perception of the words. That is, they might see the letters of the words jumbled around in all sorts of different ways. There is no way that a dyslexic person who suffers from this sort of disorientation can ever remember a word, because the word seems different every time they look at it. Fortunately, professionals can correct this problem of distorted perceptions quickly and easily with Davis Orientation Counseling. Once the student has a consistent perception of the letters and words, they can begin to help them attach meaning to the words through Davis Symbol Mastery (Abigail Marshall, 1999).

If a parent or a teacher suspects that a child has dyslexia there are two things that need to be done for this child 1) They need to get one-on-one tutoring by a professional who is trained in the use of Orton-Gillingham-based reading and spelling system, and 2) There needs to be classroom accommodations made until his/her reading, writing, and spelling skills reach grade level. Classroom accommodations can be made through a 504 Plan or an IEP. Most students can learn by listening to a teachers lecture and taking notes. But due to an inherited brain difference, dyslexic students can’t always learn that way. So, a teacher may need to change or supplement the way she presents that information so that students with dyslexia can learn (Barton, S. M. 2003). One method for teaching dyslexic students is using multi-sensory teaching. This means that the student’s visual, hearing, and sense of touch are involved in learning reading and writing skills rather than limiting them to visual and auditory stimulation only. This is necessary because dyslexic students may have a type of the disorder that is either rooted in their vision or hearing, or a type of the disorder that affects both vision and hearing. In early childhood, a technique called drawing on the carpet is used. The students are given the shapes to make a lowercase “b” or lowercase “d” on the floor of the classroom- in this case a foam/plastic circle and a foam/plastic stick or line. The student is able to see and feel the difference between the lowercase “b” or “d” and physically manipulate the letter so the skill is better remembered (Bradford, J. 2000). Also slowing the rate of the lecture will help because it will give dyslexic students the extra time they need to process auditory information. Teachers can help a dyslexic child profoundly.

Dyslexia students need a teacher who understands the frustrations that are going through. Most students who are dyslexic are smart, but they are just unable to read, spell, memorize and do things like other students and that is what they find very frustrating. The teacher also needs to understand that these students are not lazy or "bad students" and that they have a learning disability. Dyslexic students need a teacher who will not give up on them. They need a teacher that will be there and help them in many ways and support them. The teachers also need to realize that these students suffer from anxiety, because they fear that they will look stupid infront of their peers and that they will be constantly made fun of. Teachers need to reassure these students that they are not stupid or dumb and that there are people around to help them and that they will succeed (Barton, S. M. 2003). Although there are ways to help the students, diagnosing dyslexia is difficult for everyone.

When a child has many of the warning signs they need to get tested for dyslexia (Dyslexia The Gift, 2007). Dyslexia cannot be officially diagnosed using one single test. That's because dyslexia can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound. Also, dyslexia can impact many different areas. That's why a Dyslexia Testing Specialist will use from 10 to 12 tests to investigate every area that might be impacted by dyslexia. A Dyslexia Testing Specialist must have enough evidence of dyslexia ahead of time to justify putting a child through the testing process. So the tester will meet with the parents for at least two hours to gather a complete genetic, developmental and educational history on the child. The tester will want copies of the child’s report cards, as well as reports from any other testing that may have already been done. He’ll also want to know if the child has received any type of tutoring or speech therapy. The tester will also ask to see samples of recent schoolwork to see if it contains the classic mistakes that people with dyslexia make. As a last step, the tester will ask what the child is really good at because dyslexia is an unusual combination of both strengths and weaknesses. So the tester will want to find out if a child’s strengths and gifted areas also match the dyslexia pattern. If the tester uncovers any issues during the interview that are not related to dyslexia or ADD, the tester should stop the process and refer the parent to a neuropsychologist for a complete evaluation. Only if there is enough indirect evidence of dyslexia at the end of the parent interview would a professional tester agree to test the child (Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, 1998).

Though there is no actual treatment for dyslexia, there are ways for children to maneuver around the disability. First and foremost, there must be an evaluation of the child to make sure the child does or does not have dyslexia. The parents, teachers, and school administration, along with special education educators will be involved in this evaluation. A plan will be advised for the child to help improve their dyslexia, focusing on their certain areas of weakness, and making the strong areas even stronger. There are many treatments outside of the school that can also come in handy for the children. They are highly recommended, but they are rather costly. (Perlstein, D.).

Dyslexia is a very serious learning disability that can be easily intervened. By knowing the symptoms, causes, and how it is diagnosed, this will help the teacher finds ways to help the student. This particular disability is something that can be diminished if diagnosed. If the problem is not acknowledged, then the issues will persist and may lead a child to become illiterate. Although adults who have just been diagnosed with dyslexia can still be helped, children learn at a much faster rate than adults. This means that it is important to diagnose the disability as soon as symptoms persist. Children are our future. It is best for teachers to take the necessary steps to help a student. Doing so will give the child the best future, allowing their hopes and dreams to be accomplished.















Treatment for Dyslexia By Emma Cabrera
Though there is no actual treatment for dyslexia, there are ways for children to maneuver around the disability. First and foremost, there must be an evaluation of the child to make sure the child does or does not have dyslexia. The parents, teacher, and school administration, along with special education educators will be involved in this evaluation. A plan will be advised for the child to help improve their dyslexia, focusing on their certain areas of weakness, and making the strong areas even stronger. There are many treatments outside of the school that can also come in handy for the children. They are highly recommended, but they are costly. One of the most important treatments for a child is their attitude. A positive attitude is always helpful. Adults, teachers, and peers need to have a good attitude, due to the fact the child will learn from other people. Teachers must also provide reinforcement of rewards for good attitudes. These are just some of the ways treatment is available for those children with dyslexia.
Perlstein, D. In
MedicineNet. Retrieved Sep. 15, 2009, from http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/article.htm

Kourtney Wood

http://www.dyslexia.com/qasymptoms.htm#d990124

It is sometimes hard to diagnose dyslexia because it is normal for a young child to reverse letters when learning to write and it is often too early to draw conclusions about dyslexia. You can either have mild or severe symptoms when it comes to dyslexia. It is important that a dyslexic child is not pressured into learning to read and to write before they are ready.

Kourtney Wood

http://www.dys-add.com/symptoms.html

Dyslexia is rated from mild to moderate. No two people are exactly alike when it comes to dyslexia. Children with dyslexia can struggle with spelling, read slowly, struggle sounding out unknown words, and has trouble putting their thoughts on paper. When a child has warning signs they need to get tested for dyslexia.

Kourtney Wood

http://dyslexia.learninginfo.org/symptoms.htm

There are many symptoms when it comes to dyslexia. Directional confusion leads into a child being uncertain of which is left and right. For example, it is hard for a child to read a map accurately. A child should know his left and right by the age of five. Directional confusion affects other concepts also such as up and down, top and bottom, and compass directions. Directional confusion is the reasoning of reversing letters or number like b,d,p,q or 17 and 71. When the child has directional confusion it also leads to math problems because they cannot read the problem correctly and they could be confused by the different math symbols. Sequencing difficulties is another symptom of dyslexia. This affects their ability to read and spell correctly. To read a person must be able to sequence letters in a word to read correctly. An example would be the word felt and left, act and cat, and reserve and reverse. Having difficulty with little words is another symptom. An example of this would be mistaking a for and, the for a, from for for, there for then, and were for with. Late talking can also develop as a symptom. If a child talks immaturely and still makes unexpected grammatical errors in their speech when they are five years old that is a sign for an alert of dyslexia. Handwriting is a major symptom when it comes to dyslexia. The word dysgraphia is used when explaining this symptom. The writing is illegible, inconsistent, unfinished, irregular sized, and mixed up with lower and upper case. There are many symptoms when it comes to dyslexia and it affects a child majorly. When a child is showing many of these signs parents, teachers, and care givers should seek help for the child.





Emma Cabrera” notes

In this article, I learned that dyslexia is known as a “specific learning disability” (Dyslexia Teacher). Dyslexia has many symptoms, but mainly consist of children or adults that have trouble reading, writing, and working with numbers. Dyslexia Teachers also describes dyslexia as “letter blindness” because sometimes people who have dyslexia do not distinguish the way letters are suppose to be seen and may witness them backwards. When children or adults are put into a situation where they disability is prevalent, they may experience a type of “loss of confidence.” They become embarrassed and may not want to go to school anymore due to the fact that they think they will get made fun of. Dyslexia Teacher also states, “in most cases a dyslexic child can succeed at school at a level roughly equal to his or her classmates.” Children or adults with dyslexia are able to achieve at or above the average level if they work hard and put their minds to it. They are normal just like any one else.

The following information has been copied from
Dyslexia Teacher. Retrieved Sep. 15, 2009, from http://www.dyslexia-parent.com/symptoms.html

In this article, I learned not only what dyslexia is, but also what parents need to look out for and what kind of treatment is available for children with dyslexia. Dyslexia, as some people already know is a learning disability. Dr. Perlstein states that some symptoms of dyslexia are that children have difficulty copying off the board, or have a disorganization of written work. If a parent or teacher notices that a child is suffering from symptoms that they may connect with dyslexia, they need to mention it to the parent or teacher and create a meeting with the school to set the child into a special program. Dr. Perlstein also mentions that there are certain treatments available for dyslexia. “Perhaps the most important aspect of any treatment plan is attitude.” Attitude is the most important aspect a child can have when experiencing with a disability like this. If they can achieve this, they can work through dyslexia.

The following information has been copied from
Perlstein, D. In MedicineNet. Retrieved Sep. 15, 2009, from http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/article.htm

In this article, it is mainly a site with symptoms, but it provides symptoms of dyslexia in every subject area. Davis provided good information into what parents and teachers should be looking for when they may think a child is dyslexic. I was extremely surprised to find a site that contains symptoms in every subject matter, but it is very useful because one would think not to consider a trouble in one subject to be part of dyslexia.

The following information has been coped from
Davis, R. D. (1992). 37 common characteristics of dyslexia. Retrieved Sep. 15, 2009, from http://www.dyslexia.com/library/symptoms

Katie Kline's Notes:

This website explains what dyslexia is, the symptoms, treatments and causes. It also informs people of the tests that can be done to determine if someone has dyslexia and the diagnosis that can come from those tests. It also informs people what complications it can cause in school and in other aspects of a persons life.
In Google Health. Retrieved Sep. 10, 2009, from https://www.google.com/health/ref/Developmental+reading+disorder

This website is about kids health. It has a spot for parents, kids and teens. On the kids page, it explains what dyslexia is, how reading happens, how kids become readers, what it is like to have dyslexia and plenty of other information. There are games to play and movies to watch. It is an informative website but it is also a website that kids can go on and learn about this disorder and enjoy learning about it.
The Nemours Foundation,. (1995). In Kids Health. Retrieved Sep. 10, 2009, from http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/learning_problem/dyslexia.html#


When you go to this website and click on dyslexia, it takes you to an article about classroom accommodations for a student with dyslexia. It tells you what to do if you are a parent or a teacher and you suspect that a child has dyslexia. It goes into what accommodations are and if they are fair. It talks about what those children will need and that they are going to experience fear and anxiety and that you just have to help them through it.
Barton, S. M. (2003, Jan. Day ). In Learning Disabilities Journal. Retrieved Sep. 10, 2009, from http://www.ldam.org/pdf/01-03_dyslexia.pdf

Katie Kline’s paragraph:

If a parent or a teacher suspects that a child has dyslexia there are two things that need to be done for this child 1) They need to get one-on-one tutoring by a professional who is trained in the use of Orton-Gillingham-based reading and spelling system, and 2) There needs to be classroom accommodations made until his/her reading, writing, and spelling skills reach grade level. Classroom accommodations can be made through a 504 Plan or an IEP. Most students can learn by listening to a teachers lecture and taking notes. But due to an inherited brain difference, dyslexic students can’t always learn that way. So, a teacher may need to change or supplement the way she presents that information so that students with dyslexia can learn. Also slowing the rate of the lecture will help because it will give dyslexic students the extra time they need to process auditory information. So an accommodation means changing the way a teacher presents information, the way a student practices new skills, or the way a teacher tests students to ensure they have mastered the material.

Krystal Morral's Notes

University Of Washington (1999, October 6). Dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area to perform an ordinary Language Task As Normal Children. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/1999/10/991006075536.htm
This particular website uses research to prove that children who have dyslexia are using a much larger brain area when learning language than children who do not have dyslexia. The study was performed by researchers from the University of Washington. OF the 13 boys, who were between the ages of 8 and 13, the boys who had dyslexia were using 4.6 times as much of their brain when doing language activities than those who did not have dyslexia.


National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2009, Mar. 12). In NINDS Dyslexia Information Page. Retrieved Sep. 18, 2009, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dyslexia/dyslexia.htm
This website tells information on the basics behind dyslexia. It tells what it is, the possible treatments, a possible prognosis, and what kind of research is being done. This is a good starting point in learning about dyslexia.


The International Dyslexia Association. In What are the signs of dyslexia?. Retrieved Sep. 18, 2009, from http://www.interdys.org/SignsofDyslexiaCombined.htm
This website is able to break down the general signs of dyslexia. It goes into great detail about what teachers or parents will see from young children or younger students who have the learning disability. It is also sure to say that these symptoms do not necessarily mean a child has dyslexia, but they are just a few indicators.

Krystal Morral’s 3 Summaries

The International Dyslexia Association. (2008, May). In Dyslexia basics. Retrieved Sept. 18, 2009, from http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/Basics_Fact_Sheet_5-08-08.pdf

Hudson, R., High, L., and Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? Retrieved Sept. 20, 2009, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Dyslexia_and_the_Brain:_What_Does_Current_Research_Tell_Us%3F

Dyslexia is often referred to as a learning disability, particularly a language disability, which affects reading and writing. Those how have this seem to see words differently than those who do not. According to studies, fifteen to twenty percent of the population seems to have one or more of the symptoms that indicate dyslexia. Dyslexic students show signs of slow reading comprehension, poor spelling, mixing up words, and inaccurate reading. Just like many disabilities, this will affect a person throughout their whole life. Fortunately, there are specially designed methods that can allow a person to comprehend language. Although dyslexia is something that will hold a student back until they get proper help, it is not a disability that will define who the student is and what he or she is capable of doing (The International Dyslexia Association 2008).

Since dyslexia is a learning disability, it directly affects the children and teachers surrounding them. Children who have it will show so by being unable to read words from a test that average students can easily accomplish. This directly affects the teacher because he or she must find a way to change the teaching method or suggest that the student is placed with someone who can do so. If teachers were to spend more time with the students, then many other students in the classroom are being denied when it comes to learning potential. Also, children who have dyslexia will also produce many errors when identifying words. These particular indicators of dyslexia show the teacher that it is necessary to find other help. The particular disability is, in many cases, can be accommodated, but it will need to be done by more trained individuals (Hudson, High, and Otaiba 2007).

Unfortunately, many students who are labeled as having a learning disability are assumed to take certain roles. Hudson, High, and Otaiba mention a few misunderstandings about dyslexia that need to be clarified. Many believe that those who write letters and words backwards are dyslexic. Although this statement is at times true, it is especially not true for many young children. When first learning how to write, children have not mastered the language and will frequently mix up letters. It is important to watch to see how these children progress, but not necessarily indicate that they have dyslexia. Another misconception is that only those who speak English can have dyslexia. This statement is false because it can affect any population, including those who do not speak English. Just like many disabilities, dyslexia is universal. One more misinterpretation of dyslexia may lead people to think that someone who has this particular disability will never learn to read or write. This particular statement is completely wrong. Children who are diagnosed early can receive the correct teaching method and intervention in order to maintain language development. By doing so, the child will have the same chance to learn language as any other child. Although it is more difficult for adolescents or adults to become an accelerated reading, proper instructions can help them. In order to limit the misinterpretations, it is important to research dyslexia (Hudson, High, and Otaiba 2007).


Jaymee Gilmore’s Dyslexia Notes:

One method for teaching dyslexic students is using multi-sensory teaching. This means that the students visual, hearing , and sense of touch are involved in learning reading and writing skills rather limiting them to visual and auditory stimulation. This is necessary because dyslexic students may have a type of the disorder that is either rooted in their vision or hearing, or a type of the disorder that affects both vision and hearing. In early childhood, a technique called drawing on the carpet is used. The students are given the shapes to make a lowercase “b” or lowercase “d” on the floor of the classroom- in this case a foam/plastic circle and a foam/plastic stick or line. The student is able to see and feel the difference between the lowercase “b” or “d” and physically manipulate the letter so the skill is better remembered.
Another method is to use the word bed to help young students remember the difference between lowercase “b”s and “d”s. This is achieved by having the student use his/her left hand to make a “b” with the left pointer finger and thumb making a circle and the other fingers forming the “line” behind the “circle” of the “b.” With the right hand the student should do the same thing and the this form a “d” and then he/she should imagine the “e” in the middle to help him/her remember which letter is which. This can also be done discreetly at the students desk during times of question, allowing the student to maintain a degree of independence. Some teachers have also used letters made of sandpaper so the their students can feel the letters as they learn them to produce a strong tactile memory of each letter. Another way to use this method is to use play dough or clay to literally shape the letters and produce a strong, hands on tactile memory. Writing a cursive “b” was suggested as well because by looping the “b” through the air gives a different slant on the letter and ensures that there is no where to put the circle but on the right side.
Bradford, J. (2000). Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved September 16,2009, from Teaching Methods for Dyslexic Children. Web site: www.dyslexia-teacher.com/t6.html

Jaymee Gilmore’s Summary

There are several ways to work with dyslexic students in the classroom, but one of the most effective for younger students is the multisensory teaching methods. The multisensory teaching is helpful because it allows the students to use different parts of their brain to remember letters and words other than just auditory or visual stimulus because dyslexia distorts one or both of these senses.

There are five possible methods discussed: “drawing on the carpet,” the “bed” method, tactile- “sandpaper”- method, clay/play dough shaping, and cursive method. Each has a specific purpose in helping the student to remember the shapes of the letters “b” and “d.” The methods can, however, be used for other letters aside from the “bed” method. For instance, the cursive method can be used to help dyslexic students remember and feel the difference between “g’s” and “q’s.” The drawing on the carpet can be moved to a table or desk top on a smaller scale and the tactile- “sandpaper”- method can be used to reinforce the shapes of all letters to enable better the student or students to remember them. The plat dough/ clay shaping method allows young students to actually make a letter with hands on play and can reduce letter confusion. Other options are phonetic tutoring, specialized reading programs which help with reading fluency and comprehension and are available dyslexic students of different grade levels and age ranges, and recording lessons for dyslexic students to help them keep up with the class.



Diagnosing Dyslexia by Elizabeth Collins

Diagnosing Dyslexia can be very difficult. Many of the symptoms are related to other problems a child may be experiencing. A child not being able to read or having trouble with numbers can easily be credited to a developmental lag. However, there are tests that can help you diagnosis the possibility of dyslexia. A child can be professionally diagnosed with dyslexia as early as five-and-a-half years old. Although most public schools are reluctant to test children before third grade, and often encourage parents to wait and see if their child will "outgrow" his or her reading, spelling, or writing difficulties, research shows that waiting is the worst thing you can do.


The following information was copied from
Bright Solutions for Dyslexia Inc, retrieved September 18, 2009, http://www.dys-add.com/testing.html

Dyslexia cannot be officially diagnosed using one single test. That's because dyslexia can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound.
Also, dyslexia can impact many different areas.
That's why a Dyslexia Testing Specialist will use from 10 to 12 tests to investigate every area that might be impacted by dyslexia.
A Dyslexia Testing Specialist must have enough evidence of dyslexia ahead of time to justify putting a child through the testing process.
So the tester will meet with the parents for at least two hours to gather a complete genetic, developmental and educational history on the child. The tester will want copies of the child’s report cards, as well as reports from any other testing that may have already been done. He’ll also want to know if the child has received any type of tutoring or speech therapy.
The tester will also ask to see samples of recent school work to see if it contains the classic mistakes that people with dyslexia make.
As a last step, the tester will ask what the child is really good at because dyslexia is an unusual combination of both strengths and weaknesses. So the tester will want to find out if a child’s strengths and gifted areas also match the dyslexia pattern.
If the tester uncovers any issues during the interview that are not related to dyslexia or ADD, the tester should stop the process and refer the parent to a neuropsychologist for a complete evaluation. Only if there is enough indirect evidence of dyslexia at the end of the parent interview would a professional tester agree to test the child.

The following information was copied from
Davis Dyslexia Association International, retrieved September 17, 2009, http://www.dyslexia.com/qasymptoms.htm#d990124

I learned that severe dyslexia is caused by disorientation, which for dyslexic people means that they have an inaccurate perception of the words. That is, they might see the letters of the words jumbled around in all sorts of different ways. There is no way that a dyslexic person who suffers from this sort of disorientation can ever remember a word, because the word seems different every time they look at it. Fortunately, professionals can correct this problem of distorted perceptions quickly and easily with Davis Orientation Counseling. Once the student has a consistent perception of the letters and words, they can begin to help them attach meaning to the words through Davis Symbol Mastery.